1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHarold_G._Coward1990 (. It has about 760 hymns, and about 160 of the hymns are in common with the Rigveda. Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, Walter de Gruyter. Michael Witzel (2003), "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell. They are Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvanaveda. [82] According to Staal, criticising the Goody-Watt hypothesis "according to which literacy is more reliable than orality,"[86] this tradition of oral transmission "is closely related to Indian forms of science," and "by far the more remarkable" than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission. Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) [84] This provided an additional visual confirmation, and also an alternate means to check the reading integrity by the audience, in addition to the audible means. For more exam-related preparation materials, refer to the links given in the table below: Your email address will not be published. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMacDonell2004 (. [68] Jack Goody has argued for an earlier literary tradition, concluding that the Vedas bear hallmarks of a literate culture along with oral transmission,[99][100] but Goody's views have been strongly criticised by Falk, Lopez Jr,. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. [138][139], Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. "[74], The emphasis in this transmission[note 9] is on the "proper articulation and pronunciation of the Vedic sounds," as prescribed in the Shiksha,[76] the Vedanga (Vedic study) of sound as uttered in a Vedic recitation,[77][78] mastering the texts "literally forward and backward in fully acoustic fashion. [164] It is a compilation of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest while an individual performed ritual actions such as those before the yajna fire. Naturally classified with the Veda to which each pertains, Parisista works exist for each of the four Vedas. "[24] Instead, as Klostermaier notes, in their application in Vedic rituals they become magical sounds, "means to an end. The Puranas deal with creation, genealogies of deities and patriarchs, rules for living, descriptions of various worlds, and many of the popular myths and stories. Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. [65][66][note 1] The other three Samhitas are considered to date from the time of the Kuru Kingdom, approximately c. 1200–900 BCE. [41] They are a medley of instructions and ideas, and some include chapters of Upanishads within them. The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first Pali Canon written many centuries after the death of the Buddha. The literature of the Puranas is vast and converse a diversified range of topics that include but not limited to: which distinguishes it from other scriptures. [135] The Vedic canon in its entirety consists of texts from all the various Vedic schools taken together. [30], Vedas are called Maṛai or Vaymoli in parts of South India. [130] The supreme knowledge of the Absolute, para Brahman-jnana, the knowledge of rta and satya, can be obtained by taking vows of silence and obedience[131] sense-restraint, dhyana, the practice of tapas (austerities),[116] and discussing the Vedanta. About the ancient Purana. The Charanavyuha mentions four Upavedas:[213], Some post-Vedic texts, including the Mahabharata, the Natyasastra[216] and certain Puranas, refer to themselves as the "fifth Veda". Rigveda is One of the four vedas and is Oldest of the four vedas. Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated in the original order. "[80] The Vedas were preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques,[21][22][23] such as memorizing the texts in eleven different modes of recitation (pathas),[70] using the alphabet as a mnemotechnical device,[81][82][note 10] "matching physical movements (such as nodding the head)[disputed – discuss] with particular sounds and chanting in a group"[83] and visualizing sounds by using mudras (hand signs). Mimamsa scholar Sayanas (14th c. CE) major Vedartha Prakasha[note 18] is a rare[113] commentary on the Vedas, which is also referred to by contemporary scholars. As Axel Michaels explains: These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only one collection at any one time, but rather several handed down in separate Vedic schools; Upanişads [...] are sometimes not to be distinguished from Āraṇyakas [...]; Brāhmaṇas contain older strata of language attributed to the Saṃhitās; there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the Vedic schools. [151] It is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). [230], The various Hindu denominations and Indian philosophies have taken differing positions on the authority of the Vedas. Two theories have been proposed on the origin of the word Aranyakas. ",[150] the virtue of Dāna (charity) in society,[157] and other metaphysical issues in its hymns. The first versions of the Puranas were likely to be composed between 3rd – 10th Century AD. Paul Kuritz (1988), The Making of Theatre History, Prentice Hall. [134], The rituals became increasingly complex over time, and the king's association with them strengthened both the position of the Brahmans and the kings. [52], The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. According to Michael Witzel, the initial codification of the Rigveda took place at the end of the Rigvedic period at ca. The Vedas (/ˈveɪdəz, ˈviː-/;[4] Sanskrit: वेदः vedaḥ, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. The oldest part of the Rig Veda Samhita was orally composed in north-western India (Punjab) between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] while book 10 of the Rig Veda, and the other Samhitas were composed between 1200-900 BCE more eastward, between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the heartland of Aryavarta and the Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE). Some of these texts have survived, most lost or yet to be found. The importance of Vedic Sanskrit for Indo-European studies was also recognized in the early 19th century. [92][94] According to Staal, as referenced by Holdrege, though the mantras may have a discursive meaning, when the mantras are recited in the Vedic rituals "they are disengaged from their original context and are employed in ways that have little or nothing to do with their meaning. [134] Each school followed its own canon. Vedas and Puranas are important texts that define Indian culture at its finest. [28] The term in some contexts, such as hymn 10.93.11 of the Rigveda, means "obtaining or finding wealth, property",[29] while in some others it means "a bunch of grass together" as in a broom or for ritual fire. Alex Wayman (1997), Untying the Knots in Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, "The latest of the four Vedas, the Atharva-Veda, is, as we have seen, largely composed of magical texts and charms, but here and there we find cosmological hymns which anticipate the Upanishads, – hymns to Skambha, the 'Support', who is seen as the first principle which is both the material and efficient cause of the universe, to Prāna, the 'Breath of Life', to Vāc, the 'Word', and so on. Vyasa Maharshi (Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa) is considered an Avatar of Lord Vishnu and he is credited with compiling all the 18 major puranas. The songs in the later sections of the Samaveda have the least deviation from the hymns derived from the Rigveda. AB Keith (2007), The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, Motilal Banarsidass, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMahadevan1956 (. Required fields are marked *, This article will further highlight the differences between Vedas and Puranas within the context of the. [7][9][10] The Upasanas (short ritual worship-related sections) are considered by some scholars[11][12] as the fifth part. "[111] Yāska (4th c. BCE[112]) wrote the Nirukta, which reflects the concerns about the loss of meaning of the mantras,[note 13] while Pāṇinis (4th c. BCE) Aṣṭādhyāyī is the most important surviving text of the Vyākaraṇa traditions. [184][185] The text, states Kenneth Zysk, is one of oldest surviving record of the evolutionary practices in religious medicine and reveals the "earliest forms of folk healing of Indo-European antiquity". 108 Upanishads. [239], "Veda" and "Vedic" redirect here. They consist of the following: The Samhitas which speak about mantras and benedictions. "[196] The Upanishads intend to create a hierarchy of connected and dependent realities, evoking a sense of unity of "the separate elements of the world and of human experience [compressing] them into a single form. "Divya Prabandha", for example Tiruvaymoli, is a term for canonical Tamil texts considered as Vernacular Veda by some South Indian Hindus. There are twenty two + Avatars (incarnations) of Vishnu in the Bhagavatha Purana. [195] The Sama-Veda is a collection of rhythmic chants. the atharvaveda is rejected by most hindus who have an opinion on the subject. page. [19][20] In the Hindu Epic Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma. as for vedas, there are 3 or 4 depending on who u ask. For the Atharvaveda, there are 79 works, collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas. ... We are told that there was a Harappan period 4,000 years ago, ... but in Puranas Indra has … [163], The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. John Carman (1989), The Tamil Veda: Pillan's Interpretation of the Tiruvaymoli, University of Chicago Press, 37,575 are Rigvedic. The uttara-kanda (or jnana-kanda),[note 20] the part of the Veda dealing with the knowledge of the absolute, gives knowledge of Parabrahma, "which fulfills all of our desires. had their origins in the work of Lomaharshana (a disciple of Ved Vyasa) and his three students – the, NCERT Ancient Indian History Notes for UPSC, NCERT Medieval Indian History Notes for UPSC, NCERT Modern Indian History Notes for UPSC, Difference Between the Early Vedic Period and Later Vedic Period, Become familiar with the general pattern of the IAS Exam by visiting the. There are also eighteen Upa (“following” or “subsidiary’) Puranas. There are many Puranas and there are even new ones being created to this day. Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas. Hinduism is the only major religion of the world that can neither be traced to a specific founder nor has a holy book as the one and only scriptural authority. Rig veda comes first in the list of the vedas. All of them are written in verse, and all are usually attributed to Vyasa, the reputed author of the Mahabharata and editor of the Vedas. [166] corresponding to the early Kuru Kingdom. [148], Only one version of the Rigveda is known to have survived into the modern era. He is also considered a Chiranjivin (immortal) – ever living. The sixth through last hymns of the first chapter in Chandogya Brahmana are ritual celebrations on the birth of a child and wishes for health, wealth, and prosperity with a profusion of cows and artha. [221], The Puranas is a vast genre of encyclopedic Indian literature about a wide range of topics particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. The first version of various Puranas were likely to be composed between 3rd- and 10th-century CE. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions. There are 18 main Puranas and an equal number of subsidiary Puranas or Upa-Puranas and many 'sthala' or regional Puranas. The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered a Smriti. Of the remaining, 34,857 appear in the other three Samhitas, and 16,405 are known only from Brahmanas, Upanishads or Sutras. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. [91][92][71] Already at the end of the Vedic period their original meaning had become obscure for "ordinary people,"[92][note 13] and niruktas, etymological compendia, were developed to preserve and clarify the original meaning of many Sanskrit words. [67], The Vedas were orally transmitted since their composition in the Vedic period for several millennia. We find no single authoritative hindu holy book but many. 491–499. Frits Staal (2009), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin. The first part includes four melody collections (gāna, गान) and the second part three verse “books” (ārcika, आर्चिक). [170], There are two major groups of texts in this Veda: the "Black" (Krishna) and the "White" (Shukla). The Puranas are a vast collection of Indian literature that cover a wide range of topics, such as legends and traditional folklore. The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning, and reaches its end in the age of Buddha and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas (archaeologically, Northern Black Polished Ware). Finally, the meter too is systematically arranged from jagati and tristubh to anustubh and gayatri as the text progresses. [60][61], The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. [20][note 6]. Rigveda manuscripts were selected for inscription in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDashpande1990 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCoward1990 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2100 (. Gods came later, after the creation of this universe. A detailed introduction to Hindu scriptures. https://sites.google.com/a/vedicgranth.org/www/what_are_vedic_granth/the-four-veda/interpretation-and-more/construction-of-the-vedas?mobile=true, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata, The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu, Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India – their religion and institutions, The Rigvedic religious system and its central Asian and Hindukush antecedents, The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools, Atharva Veda 2.32 Bhaishagykni, Charm to secure perfect health, The Development of the Female Mind in India, "Origin and Development of Ayurveda: A Brief History", "Rig Veda in UNESCO Memory of the World Register", "Changing Conceptions of the Veda: From Speech-Acts to Magical Sounds", "Redefining the authority of scripture: The rejection of Vedic infallibility by Brahmo Samaj", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state", "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools: The Social and Political Milieu", "Autochthonous Aryans? [188] A total of 19 Brahmana texts have survived into modern times: two associated with the Rigveda, six with the Yajurveda, ten with the Samaveda and one with the Atharvaveda. [107][108][109][110] According to Deshpande, "the tradition of the Sanskrit grammarians also contributed significantly to the preservation and interpretation of Vedic texts. Buy 4 Vedas MP3 CDs A Synopsis of Hindu scriptures by Swami Sivananda. According to our needs we had two sets of grammar, one for the Vedas (sanhita part) and the other for the Puranas and for common use, because the formation of certain words and their phrasing is different in the Vedas as compared to the language of the Puranas. [155] The Rajasuya rituals, performed with the coronation of a king, "set in motion [...] cyclical regenerations of the universe. The Bhakti movement, and Gaudiya Vaishnavism in particular extended the term veda to include the Sanskrit Epics and Vaishnavite devotional texts such as the Pancaratra. Of the 18 major texts, six are Sattvic Puranas glorifying Vishnu; six are Rajasic and glorifying Brahma; and six are Tamasic and they glorifying Shiva. [168] Unlike the Samaveda which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras and structured as songs, the Yajurveda samhitas are in prose and linguistically, they are different from earlier Vedic texts. Whence, whence this creation sprang? They contain hymns in praise of various gods and goddesses. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge. a) (i)Vedas: It is derived from ‘Vid’, to know, means knowledge par … Such writings include the Divya Prabandham (aka Tiruvaymoli).[33]. BR Modak, The Ancillary Literature of the Atharva-Veda, New Delhi, Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan, 1993. Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. [136][137] The Vedas each have an Index or Anukramani, the principal work of this kind being the general Index or Sarvānukramaṇī. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press. see: For 1875 total verses, see the numbering given in Ralph T. H. Griffith. [13][25], The Sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". There are several questions like - Which is the most ancient Purana? The Rig-Veda is an anthology of religious hymns. Several authors refer to the Chinese Buddhist Monk I-Tsing, who visited India in the 7th century to retrieve Buddhist texts and gave examples of mnemonic techniques used in India: Staal: [this tradition of oral transmission is] "by far the more remarkable [than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission], not merely because it is characteristically Indian and unlike anything we find elsewhere, but also because it has led to scientific discoveries that are of enduring interest and from which the contemporary West still has much to learn.". [227] The Bhagavata Purana has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre, and is of non-dualistic tenor. The Upanishads which discuss meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge). [187], The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. There are over 20,000 mantras in all vedas combined. He gives 150 BCE (Patañjali) as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 BCE (the early Iron Age) as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. The four Vedas. [169] The Yajur Veda has been the primary source of information about sacrifices during Vedic times and associated rituals. There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. The below links to study from this segment: Difference between Vedas and Puranas orthodox (. 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